|Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea)|
All frogs are capable of feeding on invertebrates, and some are exclusive to feeding on them. Insects are the most common prey taken, though other invertebrates are preyed on too, including spiders, scorpions and snails.
BirdsEditSome of the larger species of frog are more than capable of preying on birds. Most of them are either stealthy or ambush hunters. Most will drown their prey or suffocate it before swallowing it completely. Because frogs can breathe through their skin, they have the advantage of diving underwater to drown avian prey.
MammalsEditAs with birds, mammals can be easily preyed upon by large species of frog. Some well-known mammal-eating examples are members of the genus Ceratophrys, informally named the 'Pacman Frog' due to the size of their mouth and abdomen. Among mammals, rodents (mainly mice) are the most frequent prey taken, though large frogs like the Bullfrog will even take bats. Frogs nearly always eat mammalian prey head-first, and usually drown it rather than suffocating it, if possible.
Several species of frog feed on reptiles. Most carnivorous frogs feed on snakes, while those that feed on lizards are mostly tree frogs and horned frogs. A few, such as Bullfrogs, even feed on alligator hatchlings and small turtles. Furthermore, the largest known frog ever, the now-extinct Beelzebufo ampinga, could perhaps feed on juvenile dinosaurs.
All frogs have:
- Four legs, with the front two ending in four digits, and the back two ending in five.
- Powerful rear legs for leaping and/or swimming.
- Two eyes that give them good all-round vision.
- Gills as tadpoles and lungs as adults.
Most frogs have:
- A sticky tongue that assists in capturing prey.
- Camouflaged, moist skin.
- The ability to breathe through their skin.
- A carnivorous and/or insectivorous diet.
Some frogs have:
- Webbed skin to help them swim (Rana).
- Sticky toe pads that can help them climb and get a better grip on prey.
- The ability to flick their tongue out.